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Guide to Energy Performance Certificates

All sellers are required to provide an up to date Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when selling a property. This assessment must be carried out by an accredited domestic energy assessor.

The cost of the assessment and the resulting certificate is typically between £60 and £120. The certificate contains information regarding the property’s energy use and typical energy costs. It also makes recommendations about how energy use can be reduced.

How are EPC assessments conducted?

Each certificate is valid for ten years, and each property assessed is given a rating from A (the most efficient) to G (the least efficient). The EPC rating of each property looks at the property’s energy use per square metre, the fuel costs, and the volume of CO2 emissions. The calculations are based on standardised assumptions rather than actual energy bills.

The walls, ceiling and floor will be judged for insulation, and the use of energy saving lightbulbs and double glazing all help improve the property’s rating. The heating system in place, whether or not a thermostat is fitted and the hot water delivery system are also taken into account.

Finding a qualified EPC assessor

Your estate agent will be able to recommend a company to carry out the assessment, but you can also shop around. The assessor will need to be accredited. Companies qualified to carry out EPC assessments can be found on the EPC register.

EPCs were initially introduced as a part of HIPS (home information packs). While HIPs were retired in 2010, it is still essential for an EPC assessment to be carried out each time that a property is built, sold or rented.

Unless the owner has asked for it not to be made public, you can find historic EPCs of UK properties here.

EPC examples

The EPC gives your home an energy efficiency rating. It also indicates how the recommendations made within the certificate could improve the energy efficiency. The average home in England and Wales has a D rating.


The certificate takes into account various aspects of your home and assesses their energy efficiency.


There are a number of recommendations made in the EPC that will improve your property’s energy efficiency. An indicative cost is given for each recommendation alongside the amount of money that could be saved by following the recommended course of action.


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